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SAT語法考試要點:句子殘缺

2018-12-18 19:06:00 來源:新東方在線

  新東方在線SAT頻道為大家帶來“SAT語法考試要點:句子殘缺”一文,希望對大家SAT備考有所幫助。更多精彩盡請關注新東方在線SAT頻道!

  一、考點詳解

  1. 句子缺少謂語

  一般情況下,英語句子都是由主語和謂語這兩部分組成,相比之下,謂語顯得更為重要,因為謂語是陳述主語的所發出的動作、狀態以及與其他成分的關系。在漢語的表達中常會出現省略謂語動詞的情況,特別當謂語動詞為系動詞時,如“你的想法真不錯。”受到漢語的影響,學生,特別是初學者,會用Your idea very nice類似的錯誤句子來表達。這種漢英的差異給學生學習英語帶來很多問題。英語要求每一個句子都必須出現謂語動詞。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句1:The idea of a safer cigarette not new, and Tobacco groups have toyed with the ideafor 50 years but with no serious breakthroughs from either a health or a business perspective.

  例句1是由and連接的兩個簡單句,前半部分缺少系動詞連接主語The idea of a safer cigarette和表語not new。所以應改為The idea of a safer cigarette is not new.

  2. 過去分詞/現在分詞代替謂語動詞

  在SAT試題中,往往出現一些形式類似謂語動詞的結構,出現在謂語位置上,比如現在分詞或過去分詞等。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句2:Although he only taught SAT for a week, he surprisingly scored 2350.

  例句2是一個非常簡單的主從復合句,表面看來從句謂語動詞為taught,主句為scored,兩句都不缺乏任何部分,但該句的意義就明顯不符合邏輯:“盡管他只教了SAT一個星期,他卻出乎意料地考了2350分。”根據該句所要表達的意義,我們可以推測出應該是,“他只學了SAT一個星期”,而taught實際上是teach的過去分詞,缺少了be動詞形成被動,所以該句應該改為:Although he was only taught SAT for a week, hesurprisingly scored 2350. 此類問題比較隱蔽,因為有些動詞的過去式與過去分詞是相同的,需要通過句子意義與邏輯去判斷。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句3: a) Betty Ford eulogized as trailblazer who helped millions

  b) Betty Ford, whose frank talk about her travails of breast cancer, alcoholism and pilladdiction made her for a time one of the nation's most popular women, was eulogized as acourageous trailblazer Tuesday in this desert oasis where she and her late husband, formerpresident Gerald Ford, lived after the White House.

  例句3為刊登在USA today 上的一篇文章的標題和首段,我們先看一下標題a) ,eulogized是不是標題的謂語動詞呢?我們可以與b)相比較,b)句的主干為Betty Ford was eulogized as a courageoustrailblazer,顯而易見,eulogized只是過去分詞,需要be動詞構成被動語態。標題中沒有出現be動詞主要是因為英文中的文章標題并不需要時一個完整的句子,使用名詞短語就可以,eulogized as trailblazer whohelped millions在標題中充當的是一個定語,即過去分詞作定語。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句4:Responsible for running the biggest country in the world, Russia’s 45-year-oldpresident seeming to exercise limited control over it.

  該例句中,很顯然沒有正確的動詞形式來充當謂語,seeming放在主語Russia’s 45-year-old president后理應要做謂語,但是其形式為現在分詞,無法扮演該角色,所以應該改為seems/seemed。

  3. 句子缺少主句

  句子殘缺還表現在復合句中缺乏主句這一情況。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句5:The surge in silver prices which has attracted investors the world over, from Chinaand India to the US, where the metal has become the investment of choice for Americansdistrustful of the actions of the government and central bank.

  在閱讀長難句時,首先要從分句(clause:分句的基本結構為:NP+ VP)層面觀察,因為復雜句都是由主要分句(主句)和次要分句(從句)構成,主句是必須出現的,而從句可以選擇出現。例句5中有兩個分句,第一個為which has attracted investors the world over, from China and India to the US; 第二個為wherethe metal has become the investment of choice for Americans distrustful of the actions of thegovernment and central bank.兩個分句都是次要分句(從句),所以該句缺少主句。這樣的句子殘缺問題,一般只要把其中一個從句改成主句就可以,例句5只要把第一個從句的which刪除,就可以變為主句。

  二、真題再現

  1. Research has shown that children, born with the ability to learn any human language, even several languages at the same time.

  (A) children, born with the ability to learn

  (B) children, when born with the ability for learning

  (C) children, they are born with the ability to learn

  (D) children born with the ability to be learning

  (E) children are born with the ability to learn

  解析:該句子主句完整沒有問題,但其賓語從句中缺少謂語動詞,born為過去分詞不能單獨做謂語。

  2. In 1882 there were only seven female doctors practicing in France, when in 1903 thenumber rising to 95.

  (A) when in 1903 the number rising

  (B) but by 1903 the number had risen

  (C) its number rising in 1903

  (D) there in 1903 the number rose

  (E) however, in 1903 when the number had risen

  解析:該句子主句完整沒有問題,但其狀語從句中缺少謂語動詞,rising現在分詞不能單獨做謂語。

  3. In 1980 a scholar who was examining (A) a fifteenth-century letter-writing manualdiscovering (B) fragments from (C) love letters exchanged (D) between a famous twelfth-century couple, Abelard and Heloise. No error (E)

  解析:該句子去掉定語從句等不相干成分,就會發現主句不完整,discovering現在分詞無法做該主句的謂語。

  4. Sometimes loud and frequently annoying, crows spending a lot of time spreading trashacross suburban lawns.

  (A) crows spending

  (B) crows to spend

  (C) crows spend

  (D) crows, which spend

  (E) crows, they spend

  解析:該句子去掉不相干成分,就會發現主句不完整,spending現在分詞不可以做謂語。

  5. Although most people think of Egyptian papyrus as the earliest paper, during the HanDynasty, the Chinese developing a process to create paper from individual plant fibers that wasmuch closer to techniques used in modern papermaking.

  (A) the Chinese developing a process to create paper from individual plant fibers that

  (B) the Chinese developing a process and creating paper from individual plant fibers that

  (C) the Chinese that developing a process to create paper from individual plant fibers, it

  (D) the Chinese developed a process to create paper from individual plant fibers, it

  (E) the Chinese developed a process to create paper from individual plant fibers that

  解析:Although后面是個完整的從句,但在主句中雖然主語Chinese出現了,但沒有謂語動詞與之相配。分詞結構式不能做謂語的,即developing不能單獨做謂語。劃線部分的后面是that引導的定語從句,整個句子還是沒有主句。

  6. Although the dancers were nervous at the beginning of their performance, havingshown remarkable ease as the performance progressed.

  (A) having shown remarkable ease as the performance

  (B) once they have showed remarkable ease when the performance had been

  (C) but showing remarkable ease as the performance

  (D) they showed remarkable ease as the performance

  (E) but they showed remarkable ease when the performance

  解析:Although引導一個從句,從句在逗號處結束,而逗號后的結構無法做主句,沒有主語和謂語。

  7. Both Cinderella and Snow White being dependent on a prince to rescue them fromunfortunate circumstances.

  (A) Both Cinderella and Snow White being dependent on a prince to rescue them fromunfortunate circumstances.

  (B) Both Cinderella and Snow White were dependent on a prince to rescue them fromunfortunate circumstances.

  (C) Dependent on a prince to rescue them from unfortunate circumstances being bothCinderella and Snow White.

  (D) Unfortunate circumstances were what both Cinderella and Snow White weredependent on a prince to rescue them from.

  (E) Dependent on a prince to rescue them from unfortunate circumstance was bothCinderella and Snow White.

  解析:該句沒有謂語動詞,being是現在分詞無法充當謂語。

  8. The Beatles, remembered for their groundbreaking music, which dramatically affectedthe new, burgeoning teen culture of the band’s biggest fans.

  (A) The Beatles, remembered for their groundbreaking music, which

  (B) The Beatles are remembered for their groundbreaking music, it

  (C) The Beatles are remembered for their groundbreaking music, which

  (D) The Beatles, with their groundbreaking music that

  (E) The Beatles, their groundbreaking music is remembered to have

  解析:該句沒有謂語動詞,remembered是過去分詞無法充當謂語。

  9. Found attached to the colon, the organ known as the appendix losing importancethousands of years ago through the process of evolution.

  (A) the organ known as the appendix losing importance

  (B) the organ known as the appendix has lost importance

  (C) importance of the organ known as the appendix losing

  (D) the organ known as the appendix lost importance

  (E) importance of the organ known as the appendix was lost

  解析:該句沒有謂語動詞,known為過去分詞,losing是現在分詞,都無法充當謂語。

  10. During the early 1980’s, after performing in numerous local talent shows, my cousin, who had demonstrated her talent on the television show “Star Search”.

  (A) cousin, who had demonstrated

  (B) cousin, the demonstration of

  (C) cousin demonstrating

  (D) cousin demonstrated

  (E) cousin, as a result of demonstrating

  解析:該句沒有主句,只有一個定語從句。

  三、難點聚焦

  1. 過去分詞代替謂語動詞

  句子殘缺的難點主要集中在句中以過去分詞代替謂語動詞,因為動詞的過去分詞往往與其過去時形式相同,所以容易被誤解為該句的謂語動詞。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句6:Iceland knew for its colorful tales, which poetically depict the dangerous, complexlives of the country’s earliest settlers.

  該句是主從復合句,表面看來是一個主句與一個定語從句,而且兩句都很完整。但如果把knew看作主句Iceland knew for its colorful tales的謂語動詞,這句話意義就無法理解,所以根據該句意義,knew應該是被動表達be known形式。

  2. 連詞與分句的數量關系

  英語中連接分句的方式有多種,使用連詞是最常見的;但連詞的使用有很多要求,最基本的是兩句一連詞,三句兩連詞。

  如:Someone borrowed my pen, but I don’t remember who.

  You are supposed to get rid of carelessness, for it often leads to serious errors.

  但如果兩句使用兩個連詞,一句使用一個連詞,這在SAT的語法中都是不符合要求的。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句7:Although other private-equity houses would have been interested in Valentino, as itis a valuable brand with good potential for growth, but the price paid effectively killed offany competition.

  例句7是三個分句構成,但三個分句都使用了連詞,分別是although, as, but: although和as都是從屬連詞,不可以單獨存在,上下文必須有主句,形成主從復合句;but是并列連詞,前后有應該是主句,顯而易見but前并不存在主句,所以必須把although刪除。

  閱讀以下例句,找出其中問題。

  例句8:But the money generated by the Valentino disposal will not be returned toinvestors.

  例句8是一個非常常見的句子,現在的英語表達中已經接受了該表達形式,但嚴格意義上講,but為并列連詞,功能是連接兩個句子,所以這樣只連接一個主句的用法是錯誤的。一般情況下,在書面英語中,我們會使用具有轉折含義的副詞如however, nevertheless等替代。

  四、難題透析

  1. The teacher’s enthusiasm and obvious passion for the subject inspired students andbefore they had never been interested in Shakespeare.

  (A) students and before they had never been interested in Shakespeare.

  (B) students and they had never before been interested in Shakespeare.

  (C) students; before that they had never been interested in Shakespeare.

  (D) students who had never before been interested in Shakespeare.

  (E) students that Shakespeare had never before interested them.

  解析:該句是由and連接的并列句,前后必須是兩個主句,但and后是以before引導的狀語從句。

  2. Because the flight was non-stop, and so they able to sleep for a number of hours.

  (A) and so they able to sleep for a number of hours.

  (B) therefore for a number of hours they slept.

  (C) they were able to sleep for a number of hours.

  (D) therefore they were sleeping for a number of hours.

  (E) sleeping for a number of hours was possible for them.

  解析:該句是由and連接的并列句,前后必須是兩個主句,但and前是以because引導的原因狀語從句。

  3. The problem of food and aid distribution, frequently compounded in certain countriesbecause corrupt officials and poor infrastructure making accessing the neediest people all themore challenging.

  (A) distribution, frequently compounded in certain countries because

  (B) distribution, frequently compounded in certain countries and

  (C) distribution, frequently compounded in certain countries when

  (D) distribution is frequently compounded in certain countries where

  (E) distribution is frequently compounded in certain countries and

  解析:該句是由because連接的主從復合句,主句中動詞compound意思為“加重;使化合”,一般用被動形式,所以必須有be動詞才能形成真正地謂語。

  4. While it may (A) appear that stewardesses are concerned solely (B) about passengers’ comfort, but they (C) are in fact extensively schooled (D) in flight safety. No error. (E)

  解析:該句是由but連接的并列句,前后必須是兩個主句,但but前是以while引導的狀語從句。

  5. In many large cities in the United States, the presence of a culturally (A) diversepopulation has led (B) to repeated calls that (C) curricula taught wholly or partly (D) inlanguages other than English. No error (E)

  解析:repeated calls that后引導到得應該是一個同位語從句,但該從句中taught無法做謂語,它在這里是一個過去分詞,應該使用be taught。

  以上就為大家整理的“SAT語法考試要點:句子殘缺”,更多精彩內容,請關注新東方在線SAT頻道。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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