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2018年12月英語六級閱讀真題答案詳解

2018-12-20 14:40:41 來源:新東方在線

2018年12月英語六級真題及答案大匯總
題型

  Section B

  Resilience Is About How You recharge, Not How You Endure

  [A] As constant travelers and parents of a 2-year-old, we sometimes fantasize about how much work we can do when one of us gets on a plane, undistracted by phones, friends, or movies. We race to get all our ground work done: packing, going through security, doing a last-minute work call, calling each other, then boarding the plane. Then, when we try to have that amazing work session in flight, we get nothing done. Even worse, after refreshing our email or reading the same studies over and over, we are too exhausted when we land to soldier on with(繼續處理) the emails that have inevitably still piled up.

  [B] Why should flying deplete us? We’re just sitting there doing nothing. Why can’t we be tougher — more resilient(有復原力的) and determined in our work so we can accomplish all of the goals we set for ourselves?Based on our current research, we have come to realize that the problem is not our hectic schedule or the plane travel itself; the problem comes from a misunderstanding of what it means to be resilient, and the resulting impact of overworking.

  [C] We often take a militaristic, “tough” approach to resilience and determination like a Marine pulling himself through the mud, a boxer going one more round, or a football player picking himself up off the ground for one more play. We believe that longer we tough it out, the tougher we are, and therefore the more successful we will be. However, this entire conception is scientifically inaccurate.

  [D] The very lack of a recovery period is dramatically holding back our collective ability to be resilient and successful. Research has found that there is a direct correlation between lack of recovery and increased incidence of health and safety problems. And lack of recovery — whether by disrupting sleep with thoughts of work or having continuous cognitive arousal by watching our phones — is costing our companies $62 billion a year in lost productivity.

  [E] And just because work stops, it doesn’t mean we are recovering. We “stop” work sometimes at 5PM, but then we spend the night wrestling with solutions to work problems, talking about our work over dinner, and falling asleep thinking about how much work we’ll do tomorrow. In a study just released, researchers from Norway found that 7.8% of Norwegians have become workaholics(工作狂). The scientists cite a definition of “workaholism” as “being overly concerned about work, driven by an uncontrollable work motivation, and investing so much time and effort to work that it impairs other important life areas.”

  [F] We believe that the number of people who fit that definition includes the majority of American workers, including those who read HBR, which prompted us to begin a study of workaholism in the U.S. Our study will use a large corporate dataset from a major medical company to examine how technology extends our working hours and thus interferes with necessary cognitive recovery, resulting in huge health care costs and turnover costs for employers.

  [G] The misconception of resilience is often bred from an early age. Parents trying to teach their children resilience might celebrate a high school student staying up until 3AM to finish a science fair project.What a distortion of resilience! A resilient child is a well-rested one. When an exhausted student goes to school, he risks hurting everyone on the road with his impaired driving; he doesn’t have the cognitive resources to do well on his English test; he has lower self-control with his friends; and at home, he is moody with his parents. Overwork and exhaustion are the opposite of resilience. And the bad habits we learn when we’re young only magnify when we hit the workforce.

  [H] As Jim Loehr and Tony Schwartz have written, if you have too much time in the performance zone, you need more time in the recovery zone, otherwise you risk burnout. Mustering your resources to “try hard” requires burning energy in order to overcome your currently low arousal level. This is called upregulation. It also exacerbates exhaustion. Thus the more imbalanced we become due to overworking, the more value there is in activities that allow us to return to a state of balance. The value of a recovery period rises in proportion to the amount of work required of us.

  [I] So how do we recover and build resilience? Most people assume that if you stop doing a task like answering emails or writing a paper, that your brain will naturally recover, such that when you start again later in the day or the next morning, you’ll have your energy back. But surely everyone reading this has had times where you lie in bed for hours, unable to fall asleep because your brain is thinking about work. If you lie in bed for eight hours, you may have rested, but you can still feel exhausted the next day. That’s because rest and recovery are not the same thing. Stopping does not equal recovering.

  [J] If you’re trying to build resilience at work, you need adequate internal and external recovery periods. As researchers Zijlstra, Cropley and Rydstedt write in their 2014 paper: “Internal recovery refers to the shorter periods of relaxation that take place within the frames of the workday or the work setting in the form of short scheduled or unscheduled breaks, by shifting attention or changing to other work tasks when the mental or physical resources required for the initial task are temporarily depleted or exhausted. External recovery refers to actions that take place outside of work—e.g. in the free time between the workdays, and during weekends, holidays or vacations.” If after work you lie around on your bed and get riled up by political commentary on your phone or get stressed thinking about decisions about how to renovate your home, your brain has not received a break from high mental arousal states. Our brains need a rest as much as our bodies do.

  [K] If you really want to build resilience, you can start by strategically stopping. Give yourself the resources to be tough by creating internal and external recovery periods. Amy Blankson describes how to strategically stop during the day by using technology to control overworking. She suggests downloading the Instant or Moment apps to see how many times you turn on your phone each day. You can also use apps like Offtime or Unpludded to create tech free zones by strategically scheduling automatic airplane modes. The average person turns on their phone 150times every day. If every distraction took only 1 minute, that would account for 2.5 hours a day.

  [L] In addition, you can take a cognitive break every 90 minutes to charge your batteries. Try to not have lunch at your desk, but instead spend time outside or with your friends —not talking about work. Take all of your paid time off, which not only gives you recovery periods, but raises your productivity and likelihood of promotion.

  [M] As for us, we’ve started using our plane time as a work-free zone, and thus time to dip into the recovery phrase. The results have been fantastic. We are usually tired already by the time we get on a plane, and the crowed space and unstable internet connection make work more challenging. Now, instead of swimming upstream, we relax, sleep, watch movies, or listen to music. And when we get off the plane, instead of being depleted, we feel recovered and ready to return to the performance zone.

  36. It has been found that inadequate recovery often leads to poor health and accidents

  答案:D

  解析:考查同義替換

  【D】The very lack of a recovery period is dramatically holding back our collective ability to be resilient and successful. Research has found that there is a direct correlation between lack of recovery and increased incidence of health and safety problems. And lack of recovery — whether by disrupting sleep with thoughts of work or having continuous cognitive arousal by watching our phones — is costing our companies $62 billion a year in lost productivity.

  37. Mental relaxation is much needed, just as physical relaxation is.

  答案:J

  解析:考查同義替換

  【J】If you’re trying to build resilience at work, you need adequate internal and external recovery periods. As researchers Zijlstra, Cropley and Rydstedt write in their 2014 paper: “Internal recovery refers to the shorter periods of relaxation that take place within the frames of the workday or the work setting in the form of short scheduled or unscheduled breaks, by shifting attention or changing to other work tasks when the mental or physical resources required for the initial task are temporarily depleted or exhausted. External recovery refers to actions that take place outside of work—e.g. in the free time between the workdays, and during weekends, holidays or vacations.” If after work you lie around on your bed and get riled up by political commentary on your phone or get stressed thinking about decisions about how to renovate your home, your brain has not received a break from high mental arousal states. Our brains need a rest as much as our bodies do.

  38. Adequate rest not only helps one recover, but also increases one’s work efficiency

  答案:L

  解析:考查原詞+同義替換

  【L】In addition, you can take a cognitive break every 90 minutes to charge your batteries. Try to not have lunch at your desk, but instead spend time outside or with your friends —not talking about work. Take all of your paid time off, which not only gives you recovery periods, but raises your productivity and likelihood of promotion.

  39. The author always has a hectic time before taking a flight.

  答案:A

  解析:考查原詞定位

  【A】As constant travelers and parents of a 2-year-old, we sometimes fantasize about how much work we can do when one of us gets on a plane, undistracted by phones, friends, or movies. We race to get all our ground work done: packing, going through security, doing a last-minute work call, calling each other, then boarding the plane. Then, when we try to have that amazing work session in flight, we get nothing done. Even worse, after refreshing our email or reading the same studies over and over, we are too exhausted when we land to soldier on with(繼續處理) the emails that have inevitably still piled up.

  40. Recovery may not take place even if one seems to have stopped working

  答案:E

  解析:考查同義替換

  【E】And just because work stops, it doesn’t mean we are recovering. We “stop” work sometimes at 5PM, but then we spend the night wrestling with solutions to work problems, talking about our work over dinner, and falling asleep thinking about how much work we’ll do tomorrow. In a study just released, researchers from Norway found that 7.8% of Norwegians have become workaholics(工作狂). The scientists cite a definition of “workaholism” as “being overly concerned about work, driven by an uncontrollable work motivation, and investing so much time and effort to work that it impairs other important life areas.”

  41. It is advised that technology be used to prevent people from overworking.

  答案:K

  解析:考查同義替換

  [K] If you really want to build resilience, you can start by strategically stopping. Give yourself the resources to be tough by creating internal and external recovery periods. Amy Blankson describes how to strategically stop during the day by using technology to control overworking. She suggests downloading the Instant or Moment apps to see how many times you turn on your phone each day. You can also use apps like Offtime or Unpludded to create tech free zones by strategically scheduling automatic airplane modes. The average person turns on their phone 150 times every day. If every distraction took only 1 minute, that would account for 2.5 hours a day.

  42. Contrary to popular belief, rest does not equal recovery.

  答案:I

  解析:考查同義替換與概括總結

  [I] So how do we recover and build resilience? Most people assume that if you stop doing a task like answering emails or writing a paper, that your brain will naturally recover, such that when you start again later in the day or the next morning, you’ll have your energy back. But surely everyone reading this has had times where you lie in bed for hours, unable to fall asleep because your brain is thinking about work. If you lie in bed for eight hours, you may have rested, but you can still feel exhausted the next day. That’s because rest and recovery are not the same thing. Stopping does not equal recovering.

  43.The author has come to see that his problem results from a misunderstanding of the meaning of resilience.

  答案:B

  解析:考查同義替換加概括總結

  [B] Why should flying deplete us? We’re just sitting there doing nothing. Why can’t we be tougher — more resilient(有復原力的) and determined in our work so we can accomplish all of the goals we set for ourselves? Based on our current research, we have come to realize that the problem is not our hectic schedule or the plane travel itself; the problem comes from a misunderstanding of what it means to be resilient, and the resulting impact of overworking.

  44 People s distorted view about resilience may have developed from their upbringing.

  答案:G

  解析:考查同義替換與概括總結

  [G] The misconception of resilience is often bred from an early age. Parents trying to teach their children resilience might celebrate a high school student staying up until 3AM to finish a science fair project. What a distortion of resilience! A resilient child is a well-rested one. When an exhausted student goes to school, he risks hurting everyone on the road with his impaired driving; he doesn’t have the cognitive resources to do well on his English test; he has lower self-control with his friends; and at home, he is moody with his parents. Overwork and exhaustion are the opposite of resilience. And the bad habits we learn when we’re young only magnify when we hit the workforce.

  45 People tend to think the more determined they are, the greater their success will be.

  答案:C

  解析:考查同義替換

  [C] We often take a militaristic, “tough” approach to resilience and determination like a Marine pulling himself through the mud, a boxer going one more round, or a football player picking himself up off the ground for one more play. We believe that longer we tough it out, the tougher we are, and therefore the more successful we will be. However, this entire conception is scientifically inaccurate.

[page]

  Section C

  Passage2

  Q51-55

  On Jan. 9, 2007, 10 years ago today, Steve Jobs formally announced Apple's "revolutionary mobile phone" — a device that combined the functionality of an iPod, phone and Internet communication into a single unit, navigated by touch.

  It was a huge milestone in the development of smartphones, which are now owned by a majority of American adults and are increasingly common across the globe.

  As smartphones have proliferated, so have questions about their impact on how we live and how we work. Often the advantages of convenient, mobile technology are both obvious and taken for granted, leaving more subtle topics for concerned discussion: Are smartphones disturbing children's sleep? Is an inability to get away from work having a negative impact on health? And what are the implications for privacy?

  But today, on the 10th anniversary of the iPhone, let's take a moment to consider a less obvious advantage: the potential for smartphone technology to revolutionize behavioral science. That's because, for the first time in human history, a large proportion of the species is in continuous contact with technology that can record key features of an individual's behavior and environment. To quote a recent article published in Perspectives in Psychological Science: "Psychology has a great deal of data on what people believe they do... but little data on what people actually do."

  Researchers have already begun to use smartphones in social scientific research, either to query people regularly as they engage in their normal lives or to record activity using the device's built-in sensors. These studies are confirming, challenging and extending what's been found using more traditional approaches, in which people report how they behaved in real life or participate in relatively short and artificial laboratory-based tasks.

  To illustrate the use of smartphone-based data collection, consider a forthcoming study that combined queries embedded in everyday life with sensor data to paint a more accurate picture of how mood is affected by a person's location. The data for the study came from more than 12,000 members of the general public who downloaded a free Android app to participate in the research. Twice during the day, they were prompted to report their mood and location, with location information additionally collected from the phone's location sensors. Using both kinds of location data, the study found that people reported significantly more positive moods in locations that typically involve social interactions (such as a café or friend's house) than at home, and more positive moods at home than at work.

  Other studies have used sensor data to draw more subtle kinds of inferences. For instance, a study published in 2015 followed 48 students over the course of a 10-week school term. Using a combination of location, activity and audio sensors, the researchers could infer students' patterns of class attendance, study time, physical activity and socializing. These variables, in turn, predicted student GPA with surprisingly high accuracy. Another 2015 study used mobile phones to track 40 adult participants over a two-week period. Using patterns of movement and phone usage, the researchers were able to identify behaviors that predicted symptoms of depression.

  These studies are just first steps. As more data are collected and methods for analysis improve, researchers will be in a better position to identify how different experiences, behaviors and environments relate to each other and evolve over time, with the potential to improve people's productivity and wellbeing in a variety of domains. Beyond revealing population-wide patterns, the right combination of data and analysis can also help individuals identify unique characteristics of their own behavior, including conditions that could indicate the need for some form of intervention — such as an uptick in behaviors that signal a period of depression.

  Smartphone-based data collection comes at an opportune time in the evolution of psychological science. Today, the field is in transition, moving away from a focus on laboratory studies with undergraduate participants towards more complex, real-world situations studied with more diverse groups of people. Smartphones offer new tools for achieving these ambitions, offering rich data about everyday behaviors in a variety of contexts.

  So here's another way in which smartphones might transform the way we live and work: by offering insights into human psychology and behavior and, thus, supporting smarter social science.

  51. What does the author say about the negative impact of smartphones?

  A. It has been overshadowed bythepositive impact.

  B. It has more often than not been taken for granted.

  C. It is not so obvious but has caused some concern.

  D. It is subtle but should by no means be overstated.

  答案:C

  解析:通過題干定位至第三段,由Often the advantages of convenient, mobile technology are both obvious and taken for granted, leaving more subtle topics for concerned discussion可知,C選項,消極的影響沒有優點那么明顯,但是已經導致一些令人憂慮的問題,符合原文。

  52. What is considered a less obvious advantaged of smartphone technology?

  A. It systematically records real human interactions.

  B. It helps people benefit from technological advances.

  C. It brings people into closer contact with each other.

  D. It greatly improves research on human behavior.

  答案:D

  解析:通過題干定位至第四段,the potential for smartphone technology to revolutionize behavioral science,D選項符合原文。

  53. What characterizes traditional psychological research?

  A. It is based on huge amounts of carefully collected data.

  B. It relies on lab observations and participants’ reports.

  C) It makes use of the questionnaire method.

  D) It is often expensive and time-consuming.

  答案:B

  解析:通過題干定位至第五段,extending what's been found using more traditional approaches, in which people report how they behaved in real life or participate in relatively short and artificial laboratory-based tasks.因此選擇B。

  54.How will future psychological studies benefit individuals?

  A) By helping them pin down their unusual behaviors.

  B) By helping them maintain a positive state of mind.

  C) By helping them live their lives in a unique way.

  D) By helping them cope with abnormal situations.

  答案:A

  解析:通過題干定位至第八段,由Beyond revealing population-wide patterns, the right combination of data and analysis can also help individuals identify unique characteristics of their own behavior, including conditions that could indicate the need for some form of intervention — such as an uptick in behaviors that signal a period of depression.可知選擇A“能幫助確定一些不尋常的表現”符合問題答案。

  55.What do we learn about current psychological studies?

  A) They are going through a period of painful transition.

  B) They are increasingly focused on real-life situations.

  C) They are conducted in a more rigorous manner.

  D) They are mainly targeted towards undergraduates.

  答案:B

  解析:有題干定位至第九段,Today, the field is in transition, moving away from a focus on laboratory studies with undergraduate participants towards more complex, real-world situations studied with more diverse groups of people,可知B選項正確,意思為現在的研究重點從本科生實驗室轉向了真實世界的情況。

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